Minggu, 04 Mei 2014

Chapter II

SAUSSURE: LANGUAGE AS A SOCIAL FACT

By the end of the nineteenth century, apparently everything look good for the time, and some still remain convincing for the present - the equation of languages with biology has been widely rejected. It creates a difficulty for understanding language as an academic discipline: If the languages are not living species. In what sense are they "things" that can be investigated? A layman happily to French as something that can be learned, which has specific devices and in some same or similar cases for the English but differs from it in others; but if the French is an item which is something strange. It obviously is not a concrete object like a table or even like the stretch of terrain called France. You cannot see or hear the France. You can hear Gaston as the waiter saying “pas si bete …””; you can see a line of print in a newspaper “Le Monde”; but how can we define a form is called French that is behind thousands of a phenomenon concrete which can be observed like in two examples? What sort of a form could it be? The biological paradigm had treated the relationship between speech from France as relationship between a particular carrot and the species carrot: and, until the biological paradigm had to be given up anyway, this treatment seemed satisfying – even though the person just could see or eat carrots, person appreciated that it made sense to talk about the species carrot and to discuss, say, its genetic relationship with the species parsnip. But, in the first place, the biological paradigm had fallen by the wayside; secondly, person thought about it that paradigm never really did offer a complete answer to the problem under discussion anyway. In biology, while species are abstractions, at least individuals of a species are concrete; few things are more tangible than a carrot. But the linguistic analogue of a biological individual is a person’s idiolect; and this is almost, if not fully, as much of an abstraction as is the wider concept of a language. We cannot hear Gaston idiolect as a form; we can only hear examples of that idiolect – the comment which he made when he noticed the tip that we left, and example of that idiolect has no parallel in biology. So, although it was not typically felt to be problematic by linguists of the nineteenth century, the question ‘how does it make sense to postulate entities called languages or dialects underlying the tangible reality of particular utterance?’ in fact remained open during the period. The man who answered it, in a way which satisfied his contemporaries and continues to satisfy many people today, was the Swiss scholar Ferdinand the Saussure.

Mongin-Ferdinand de Saussure, that was his full name, was born in Geneva 1857, son of Huguenot family which had emigrated from Lorraine during the French religious wars of the late sixteenth century. Although nowadays people think Saussure as first one and foremost who defined the notion of synchronic linguistics-the study of language as systems existing at a given point in time, as opposed to the historical linguistics (diachronic linguistics, as Saussure called it to clarify the contrast) which had seemed to his contemporaries the only possible approach to the subject-in his own lifetime this was far from his main claim to fame. Saussure was trained as a linguist of conventional, and became outstandingly successful as such at very early age: his Memoire sur le systeme primitif des voyelles dans les langues indo-europeennes (1878), published a few weeks after his twenty-first birthday while he was a student in Germany. It is one of landmarks in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European. Saussure lectured at the Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes in paris from 1881 to 1891, before returning to a chair at Geneva; all his publications, and almost all his teaching, throughout his career dealt with historical rather than with synchronic linguistics, and indeed with detailed analysis of various Indo-European languages rather than with the general which he is famous now.

In fact, although Saussure produced his work on general linguistics theory in about 1890 (Koerner, 1973: 29), he seems reluctant to give it to someone else, and the story of how his ideas can go into publishing is a strange story. At the end 1996, he was persuaded to take over responsibility for a course on general linguistics and the history and comparison of the Indo-European languages from a scholar who had had to give it up after thirty three years; Saussure taught the material in the rest of the college years and in the college years 1908-09 and 1910-11. In the first of these years, Saussure limited himself exclusively to historical matters; but when he gave the course for second time he included a brief introduction about synchronic linguistics, and in the third course, finally, a full semester was devoted to theoretical synchronic linguistics. It is not long afterwards, he died, without having published any of this theoretical material. Several people had asked him to it, but he always replied that to set materials of his lesson was too time-consuming. But two of his colleagues, Charles Bally and Albert Sechehaye set those materials from notes taken by students together with such lecture-notes as Saussure had left behind. The book that they produced, the Cours de linguistique generale (Saussure 1916), was the vehicle by which Saussure’s thought became known to scholarly world, and it was in virtue of this one document that Saussure is recognized as the father of twentieth-century linguistics.

Sabtu, 30 November 2013

Explanation of the Article

Ibas dragged into SKKMigas
scandal


A court hearing in the Upstream Oil and Gas Regulatory Special Task Force (SKKMigas) bribery case revealed that the name of President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono’s son, Edhie “Ibas” Baskoro could have been abused in the scandal.

According to a dossier read during the on Thursday, Ibas is believed to be close to Singapore-based oil trader Kernel Oil, especially the company’s president Widodo Ratanachaitong. Widodo was suspected of bribing former chief Rudi Rubiandini in return for a guarantee to allocate some oil blocks.

Ibas’ alleged involvement was revealed when judge Djoko Subagyo asked graft defendant Deviardi, a golf trainer who dabbled as a middleman and confidante of Rudi, about his conversation with Widodo.

In the dossier, Deviardi said that Widodo claimed to have close ties to people from the State Palace.

“He [Widodo] has seven oil companies, all based overseas. He has networks in the State Palace, the House of Representatives and Cabinet Secretary Dipo Alam,” Djoko said as he read the dossier.

According to the dossier, Deviardi also told Rudi that Ibas would be happy if Rudi struck a deal with Widodo.

Djoko then asked Deviardi whether it was true that Widodo told him about his close relationship with the First Family.

“Oh yes, [the conversation between us took place] when we met in Singapore. Widodo told me something about that. After that, I reported [the information] to Rudi,” Deviardi said.

Responding to the allegation, Ibas, who is also the secretary-general of the Democratic Party, said that he did not know Widodo.

“I was linked to the case. I reiterate that I don’t know the people who claim that they are close to me,” he said.

Ibas also said that he knew nothing about Kernel Oil, or people linked to the company.

“Anyone could mention my name, but in the context of the law, [the public] should be able to tell the difference between facts, opinion, political rumors or anything that leads to defamation,” he said.

This is not the first time Ibas was dragged into a graft scandal. Last year, he was accused by graft convict Yulianis, former deputy financial director of the privately owned Permai Group, of having accepted US$200,000 from the company.

Yulianis said the Permai Group wired Ibas $200,000, money that was allegedly pooled from the Hambalang project.

The money was reportedly used to finance the Democratic Party congress in Bandung in 2010, during which Anas Urbaningrum was elected chairman.

Ibas has denied the accusation, saying he did not know Yulianis and adding that the allegation was an attempt to tarnish his reputation.

Thursday’s hearing also implicated other individuals, including current SKKMigas chief Johannes Widjonarko, suspected of introducing a businessman who gave US$600,000 to Rudi through Deviardi.

Rudi, who also testified on Thursday, admitted that Deviardi attempted to deliver bribe money, but he claimed to have turned it down.

In his testimony, Rudi also named Tri Yulianto of the Democratic Party, who is also a member of the House’s Commission VII overseeing energy and natural mineral resources.

Rudi claimed that he was pressed by the commission to pay holiday bonuses for the Idul Fitri festivities in 2013, locally known as THR.

Rudi said that he gave $200,000 to Tri, who was reportedly ordered by fellow Democratic Party lawmaker Sutan Bhatoegana to get the money.

The money paid to Tri was taken from a $300,000 sum received by Deviardi from an unknown company as a gift, Rudi said.

Rudi claimed that he had no choice but to accept the $300,000 due to pressure from the House.

Deviardi, however, said that the money was actually given in Singapore by Febri Prasetyadi Soeparta, the former president director of PT Zerotech Nusantara.

Sumber: The Jakarta Post.com: http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2013/11/29/ibas-dragged-skkmigas-scandal.html

Analysis:

1. Complex Sentence

In paragraph 3: Ibas’ alleged involvement was revealed when judge Djoko Subagyo asked graft defendant Deviardi

Explanation: A sentence that contains an independent clause and at least one dependent clause.

The complex sentence is one of the four basic sentence structures. The other structures are the simple sentence, the compound sentence, and the compound-complex sentence.

Judge Djoko Subagyo asked graft defendant Deviardi is a dependent clause. Because it is preceded by the word when, which is a subordinating conjunction. Dependent clauses are not complete sentences; they cannot stand alone as a complete sentence. Ibas’ alleged involvement was revealed is a independent clause. The independent clause can stand alone as a complete sentence.

Nordquist, Richard. Complex Sentence. http://grammar.about.com/od/c/g/complexsentence.htm

2. Possesive Adjective

In paragraph 3: about his conversation with Widodo.

Explanation: We use possessive adjectives to show who owns or "possesses" something. The possessive adjectives are:

I: My It: its
You: Your We: Our
He: His They: Their
She: Her

In the sentence above: his conversation. His is a possessive adjective that come from “He”.

English Club. Possesive Adjectives. http://www.englishclub.com/grammar/adjectives-determiners-possessive.htm

3. To Infinitive

In paragraph 18: Deviardi attempted to deliver bribe money.

Explanation: Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. In the sentence above, the infinitive is attempted to deliver. It is an infinitive as the object of a sentence.

English Page.com. Gerund and Infinitive Part 1. http://www.englishpage.com/gerunds/part_1.htm





Minggu, 03 November 2013

The Article of Reported Speech

Reported Statements

When do we use reported speech? Sometimes someone says a sentence, for example "I'm going to the cinema tonight". Later, maybe we want to tell someone else what the first person said.
Quoted speech refers to reproducing another person’s exact words. Quotation marks are used.
Reported speech refers to reproducing the idea of another person’s words. Not all of the exact words are used: verb forms and pronouns may change. Quotation marks are not used.

Quoted speech:
Jane said, “I am hungry.”

Reported speech:
Jane said that she was hungry.

Notice in the example: the verb form and pronoun change from quoted speech to reported speech.

Tense / Modal
Simple present
Quoted speech: He said, “I like ice cream.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he liked ice cream

Present continuous
Quoted Speech: He said, “I am working hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he was working hard

Simple past
Quoted Speech: He said, “I bought a car.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he had bought a car

Past continuous
Quoted Speech: He said, “I was walking along the street.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he had been walking along the street.

Present perfect
Quoted Speech: He said, “I have worked hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he had worked hard.

Past perfect*
Quoted Speech: He said, “I had taken English lessons before.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he had taken English lessons before.

Future (will)
Quoted Speech: He said, “I will work hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he would work hard.
Future (to be going to)
Quoted Speech: He said, “ I am going to work hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he was going to wok hard.

Can
Quoted Speech: He said, “I can work hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he could work hard.

Should
Quoted Speech: He said, “I should call my mother.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he should call her mother.

May
Quoted Speech: He said, “I may work hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he might work hard.

Must
Quoted Speech: He said, “I must study on Sunday.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he had to study on Sunday.

Have to
Quoted Speech: He said, “I have to work hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he had to work hard.

Ought to
Quoted Speech: He said,”I ought to work hard.”
Reported Speech: He said (that) he ought to work hard.

Informal: sometimes, especially in speaking, the verb in noun clause is not changed if the speaker is reporting something immediately or soon after it was said.
a. immediate reporting:
A: what did Ann just say? I didn’t hear her.
B: she said (that) she is hungry
b. Later reporting:
A: what did Ann say when she got home last night?
B: she said (that) she was hungry.
Occasionally, we don't need to change the present tense into the past if the information in direct speech is still true (but this is only for things which are general facts, and even then usually we like to change the tense):
• Direct speech: “The sky is blue”
• Reported speech: She said that the sky is/was blue

Reported questions

How can we make the reported speech here?
In fact, it's not so different from reported statements. The tense changes are the same, and we keep the question word, for example:
• Direct speech: "Where do you live?"
• Reported speech: She asked me where I lived.
Do you see how I made it? The direct question is in the present simple tense. We make a present simple question with 'do' or 'does' so I need to take that away. Then I need to change the verb to the past simple.
So much for 'wh' questions. But, what if you need to report a 'yes / no' question? We don't have any question words to help us. Instead, we use 'if':
• Direct speech: "Do you like chocolate?"
• Reported speech: She asked me if I liked chocolate.

Reported Requests

There's more! What if someone asks you to do something (in a polite way)? For example:
• Direct speech: "Close the window, please"
• Or: "Could you close the window please?"
• Or: "Would you mind closing the window please?"
All of these requests mean the same thing, so we don't need to report every word when we tell another person about it. We simply use 'ask me + to + infinitive':
• Reported speech: She asked me to close the window.
Some verbs are followed immediately by a (pro)noun object and then an infinitive phrase. These verbs (see the list below) are often used to report speech.

Reporting speech: Verb + (Pro)noun object + infinitive*
Advise someone to invite someone to remind someone to
ask someone to Order someone to tell someone to
encourage someone to permit someone to Warn someone to

*Other common verbs followed by a (pro)noun object and an infinitive:
Allow convince instruct beg direct persuade challenge expect Urge

To report a negative request, use 'not':
• Direct speech: "Please don't be late."
• Reported speech: She asked us not to be late.

References:

Azar, Betty Schramper. 1992. Fundametals of English Grammar, Edisi Dwibahasa(Budijanto, penerjemah.). Jakarta Barat: Binarupa Aksara.

http://www.perfect-english-grammar.com/reported-speech.html

Minggu, 09 Juni 2013

Example of Application Letter

Bekasi, May 26, 2013

Dear,
Personnel Manager
PT. Indah Kurnia
Jl. Narogong km 13
Bekasi, West Java

Dear Sirs,

According with job offers from PT. Indah Kurnia, as published in the internet on March 20, 2013, with this I volunteered to join the Marketing Team at PT. Indah Kurnia. As for my personal data as follows:

Name : Ranjana
Place / Date of Birth : Bekasi, February 28, 1990
The end of education : SMA
Address : Bekasi Timur Regensi ,Bekasi
Phone : 08134444999

I am currently working as a part time in PT. Bintang Mandiri. I like to learn and be able to work independently and in a team as well.

For your consideration, I enclose the following:

1. Curriculum vitae.
2. Photocopy of diploma vocational
3. Copy of certificate courses / training.
4. Pass a recent photo.

My big hope was given the opportunity to attend an interview in order to explain more about the profile and skills that I have. Besides the data contained on a resume (curriculum vitae), I also have considerable experience in energy marketing and a hard worker.

Thus this application I submit, for your attention and help given me thank you.

Yours sincerely,



Ranjana

Example of Invitation Letter

Mathonic Seminars
Bekasi Islamic Centre


Mrs Purwa
Gougi Educational Services
Anggrek Street, Bogor,West Java
Indonesia.

Dear Mrs Purwa,

Business Collaboration Meeting with our Business Expansion Team

As a follow-up to our phone conversation, this is to confirm that we would like to invite you for a meeting with our President Dr Agus and our Business Expansion Team at our Annual Expansion meeting slated for January 20th – 24th 2012 at our office in Bekasi City.

During the meeting, we would give you a tour of our facilities and present our proposed plan for the collaboration between our organisations. We would also expect you to be prepared to present your company to us, especially your newly developed program for young university graduates. Our investors have shown some interest in this program and some of them will also be in attendance at these meetings.

We have made adequate preparations for your accommodation and transportation around the city while you are with us. Details of your hotel reservations have been sent to your email.

Should you have further questions please feel free to contact us using the information above.


Yours faithfully,




Joko
Vice President

Example of Order Letter

July 15, 2012

Selly Office Products
P.O. Box 17151
Rawa Lumbu, Bekasi

Subject: Clothing order

Please ship the following items from your sales catalog
dated January 31, 2012:

ITEM CATALOG # COLOR QTY PRICE

Dress BS-33070-WC Orange 1 Rp.100.000,00
Shirt BS-33345-BC Blue 3 Rp.150.000.00
Blouse HC-22005-SH Red 2 Rp.300.000,00
Jacket HS-55118-ZC Black 2 Rp.300.000,00


The items ordered above should be shipped C.O.D. to this address:

Bagus Cloth
Bandung City
P.O. Box 11661
Dago, Bandung (021)883251

The costs above reflect a discount of 60/10, with net due in 30
days after the invoice date. The merchandised is to be shipped
by your company's own truck line at a rate of 7 percent of the
total net cost.

We are remodeling our offices and have a target completion date
of August 30, 2012, . If there is any reason you see that you can
keep your part of this schedule, please let me know
immediately.

Sincerely,



Regie
Supervisor, Clerical Services